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Carlevaro Technique

Maestro Renato Bellucci

Many guitar players are often wasting a lot of precious energy trying to compensate for the anatomical wrong sitting positions with the guitar. When examining some of these players, the Uruguayan Maestro Abel Carlevaro used to say: -"They would play much better and for longer with better, more natural postures". Carlevaro was referring to players of the stature of John Williams, Christopher Parkening etc.

I would not dare to go that far, but Carlevaro talked from the vintage point of one of the few who had taken the time to study the physics and anatomy involved in guitar playing. Carlevaro's technique is among the few that has gone that far and he passed his knowledge to his students. I studied under Maestro Abel Carlevaro in Montevideo, Uruguay from 1985 to 1988. Let it be clear though that you if you think that Carlevaro Technique is a way of playing whereas by following a number of steps you will eventually end up playing and sounding like Abel Carlevaro you are heading for a big disappointment. Following a series of concepts and a method of study, you will eventually discover your guitar technique, the only guitar technique that will ever work right for you. 


Segovia played well into his nineties, but it is true that the amount of strings squeaking was unbearable as his age increased and his energy died out. The amount of strength needed to play with little left hand noise  twisting the torso and an anchoring the left elbow against the waist is enormous. In some of Parkening recordings for instance you can actually hear the moans of pain here and there. Today's guitar technique standards require more perfection and the so called "recording strings" should be called handicapped performer strings. A good set of worn-out strings is better. Trying to play like the "dinosaurs", is prone to make us frustrated .

Talent can make up for a lot of defects, but I have known quite a few guitarists who had to abandon their careers due to serious injuries that originated in a faulty sitting position. The article you are reading was written in 1997 and earlier this year (2014), the legendary American guitarist Christopher Parkening had to retire from playing due to serious lower back problems. And all for what? Surely not worth the price!

For most of the XX century, the guitar was to be played like Segovia did. Nobody asked too much back then, because a word of admiration from the Andalusian Maestro opened many doors, a word of dislike  had the power of ending or seriously jeopardizing  a whole musical career. But the dictatorship years are finally over.

Be brave and always ask your teacher "why?". "You will understand later" is a bad answer.

It is true that Segovia contributed enormously to the growth of the guitar  repertoire and took it to high levels of admiration, but it is also true that guitar technique got stalled for decades because of his stubbornness. He would bring hell on Earth if you changed the fingering to his "precious transcriptions". Look at the video below if you do not believe me. I witnessed that 1986 USC Masterclass first hand.

Players like Yepes, Barrios or Carlevaro who tried to introduce new ideas both in instrument design and technique, were dismissed a priori. 

Perfection being the ultimate, unattainable goal, makes it understandable that concessions have to be made. But a whole generation of players was stuck on the same variation: To play with the outer part of the nails and twist the body around the guitar like a snake. -Some of these players have changed somewhat throughout the years. They sold us the illusion and lie that speed was all that mattered and have burned this idea in every guitar player of my generation and the contemporary guitar scene has inherited this monstrosity.

When their years were coming to an end, players like Segovia would start sounding wise and philosophical: "You are the general of your fingers and not vice versa" -Andres Segovia to Marcelo Kayath in his last masterclass at USC, LA 1986-. Competitions are the Cathedrals to this horror and you will always find one dinosaur or two behind the organization. There are a zillion better ways to build a career, therefore, take my advice and avoid competitions, plus, a competition won, guarantees nothing. The few bucks evaporate fast and the concert tour is over even before it starts. It is believed that at least 1,000 "major guitar competitions" winners are still out there. How many do you know? How many visited your hometown? How many are still playing?...

I do not think Abel Carlevaro was the greatest anything, actually, if it were not for the dinosaurs, I would probably not have a guitar CD or LP collection for that matter. Therefore, it is not as personal as it seems. One thing is sure though, Carlevaro knew exactly what he was doing and that is what he wanted his students to learn:  Carlevaro was aware that faulty sitting or playing positions could cause "something undesirable" to happen that may have caused health or career problems in the short, medium or long run.-- Music is for life, it is a calling, it is not like saying "well, if I can't make it, I can always do something else". I sincerely think that it is always a healthy approach to dedicate our lives to more than just one thing in a world as rich and changing  as the one we live in, but we will always need our music to feel that good and there is only one way to do music: to do it well.

Fortunately, the silent and persistent work of several very inspired Maestros, has opened new doors for our instrument thus allowing it to enter the "classical" status just over 100 years ago. Abel Carlevaro's technique has been discussed over and over and most times, I realize that it is totally misunderstood. In his book he introduces his technique as "... a testimony of an experience lived over the years". He describes himself perfectly when he says "Going through life as my own apprentice and teacher". Apprentice and teacher. These 2 words in sequence speak of someone very much in contact with the higher offerings of human life.  I think that in these two words Carlevaro is describing the master that he was. As the old Eastern adagio goes: "The teacher and the taught make the teaching". He concludes saying "I learned with my students and, faithful to the pupil and teacher in me, I shall go on".

Same here, plus, everything from the elbow upwards is a "mistake of nature". I can still recall one of my dinosaur teachers saying: "Pretend you are holding a book between your elbow and your waist". I almost became a librarian thanks to that advice! (not that I have anything against librarians, I just did not dream with the life).

In his book School of Guitar, Carlevaro describes the below sitting positions as  WRONG

It is funny because in his guitar method, Parkening describes the exact opposite as RIGHT. In 2014, Parkening had to retire from concertizing because of serious lower back related problems.

Carlevaro Guitar Technique Compendium

I will focus next on guitar technique concepts. The only guitar technique treaty that captured my imagination in the many years I have been studying guitar is Abel Carlevaro's "School of Guitar". I will shed my personal views on technique enlightened by the fascinating insights of Maestro Abel Carlevaro.

The only technique I can dare to describe is my technique: Renato Bellucci's technique. My technique has little to do with Carlevaro's. So does my playing. We share a deep hate for left hand squeaks and no place in our lives for appoggiato -rest- stroke. My left hand -arm- is definitely Carlevarian, so is 50% of my right hand and an equal percentage of my overall body sitting positionWhere we are practically 100% equal is in our way of going to the heart of the matter. I learned to think as a player with Carlevaro because he was a true intellectual. Many times, my way of achieving results was totally opposite to Carlevaro's. Yours will probably be too. Remember that we are all equal but not all the same. I never liked some of Carlevaro's sounds (he developed and/or described 5 different right hand sounds). He used his personal taste and uniqueness and the only person he had to convince was himself. His conviction was contagious. When he saw other ways to do things, he observed. He made sure you were conscious of the decisions you were undertaking and approved. You had to show him you were convinced and that was all that mattered to him. When you think before playing and observe everything carefully you are using Carlevaro's Technique or Carlevaro's Approach even if you reach different conclusions or use different mechanical concepts to solve a musical phrase.

Most of the Uruguayan Master concepts are Universal. Of course, intelligence is universal ! The degree or type of intelligence may differ but we all know what is. When School of Guitar was first published in Argentina in 1979, it presented Carlevaro's way of playing and why. When I worked with Carlevaro in the late 80's, he would often "edit" these concepts to make them applicable to me. What he achieved though, was a lot more. He planted  the seed of search and curiosity in me which would set me on the right path. The one path that would lead me to my best playing. Therefore the following chapters can be classified as "Carlevaro's way of thinking revised by Bellucci".

Being close to him, I realized that some of the concepts that seem to be very rigid when taken from his books, are actually much more flexible and it is very important that the guitar player keeps in mind that every single rule has to be filtered by each individual's unique built and musical taste. This is exactly what I will do  teaching master classes learning  real pieces with you and solving the technical challenges using my brain, just like the master taught me.

Getting to know Montevideo and the Uruguayan musical scene is very important when one tries to understand how and why a musician of Carlevaro's stature approached guitar playing in such a scientific and universal way. At the beginning of the 20th Century Uruguay was often referred to as the South American Switzerland. A strong imperial English hand, left its marks in many of Uruguay's customs. Top European immigrants at the turn of the 19th Century gave Montevideo and Uruguay in general, a character that is simply non existent in neighboring Argentina or Brazil. The illiteracy levels in Uruguay are almost 0. That says a lot especially when in many countries there exists a generalized idea that all South America is the same... therefore third world classifiable

PLAYING POSITION: On Sitting With the Guitar

Most guitar methods and treaties start dealing with the proper way to sit holding the guitar. Carlevaro is no exception. The main difference to his approach, as compared to many others, is that he brings thorough knowledge of anatomy, physics and common sense into the equation. He begins describing BODY POSITION it is not dealt with as a mere matter of posture but as one of balance and equilibrium between the instrument and the player.

Sitting with the classical guiar

The first objective to be achieved is: to hold the guitar perfectly still allowing for full freedom of movement for the player.
As opposed to the traditional school, Carlevaro states: "The guitar must adapt to the body, not the body to the guitar". Each player must take into account his or her unique characteristics and the guitar must adapt to these.

Back pain is one of the most frequent complains of guitar players all over. Carlevaro realized that the main problem was the "placement of both feet forward". This is a very unstable position that requires the back to make an enormous effort to maintain the balance. By setting the feet properly, one in front and the other behind, the player will be able to move his whole body by simply pushing on one foot or another. Not applying pressure on either foot will mean stillness. 

In order to be able to sit with your feet as shown in the figure below, you will have to sit towards the front-right side of your chair (4 legged chair) in order for the right foot to be free to go behind you.

In downtown Asuncion, they have this chair (image below) on sale which I and a few of my students have bought. It deals with the 4 leg issue of standard chairs, plus it is anatomically comfortable, light and is made of sturdy leather and wood. It can be folded really easily and carried everywhere. It allows to play with no footstool or with very low setting on the footstool (only 17 inches from the floor to the butt). Click on the button to the right if you would like me to purchase and airmail 1 to you.

US$ 200


Remember that when you are discovering your sitting position you must consider all the possibilities with great flexibility. A faulty sitting position is at the root of a faulty technique and poor musical expression. "The left arm must be totally free to move in order to help the hand and the fingers in every way." Carlevaro will never refer to fingers literally. To him fingers' movements will always include arm-wrist-hand movements and in a more indirect way the muscles of the upper torso and legs.

In order to attack the strings at the correct angle (the angle where the best sound is produced) "the wrist must be kept as straight as possible; raise or lower the guitar, rotate it between the legs, adjust it until the fingers can produce the most efficient stroke as naturally as possible."

A correct sitting position plus 3 points of contact between the guitar and the player is what I call a great start.

When you are playing, 5 points of contact are established between the player and the guitar although only contact points 1, 2 & 3 are necessary to keep the guitar in place.

1) The left leg.
2) The right leg.
3) The right arm.
4) The chest.
5) The left arm.

Holding the Guitar, 3 sustaining points

These 3 contact points between the guitar and the player will keep the guitar in place.

Holding the Guitar, 4 Sustain Points

The chest and forearm make contact with the guitar.

Holding the Guitar, 5 Sustain Points

Finally, the left hand makes contact with the neck of the instrument.

Angle of Attack

The guitar has been around for a long time before anyone ever considered to play classical music with it. Therefore, it is not surprising that several guitarists have come up with ideas to help better hold the instrument on the left leg. The curved shape on the lower side caused an anatomical problem. Carlevaro used a small cushion on his left leg to lift the guitar more. I tried and played with a cushion myself  for a few years but the cons were far superior than the pros. Carlevaro was a fragile built person. I am big. The guitar moved too much on the spongy cushion and lacked the necessary stability for me. Plus, I did not like the sound I produced with my fingers at a 90 degrees angle with the strings. Carlevaro played at 90 degrees and his sound was great. Some of his students that copied the 90 degree approach developed an unpleasant sound. The type of nail has a lot to do with the angle of attack.

Instinctively, the guitarist feels as though the curve has to fit the upper part of the left leg. If you observe closely, you will notice that by following this instinct you will be forced to twist your upper and lower torso. Your right arm will tend to cover the upper side of the guitar pushing your right elbow up and dumping the guitar sound. This position only allows the player to see the sixth string. In the  picture to the right you can see that the guitar points upwards allowing for the 6 strings to be visible. The lower curvature is totally ignored and the guitar makes contact on its inner ring. The lumbar area is relaxed and so is the right shoulder.

"Body movements must not affect the balance of the instrument. A degree of body motion is necessary when certain technical demands are placed on the left hand and arm". The feet are the main motors. They act as levers. The right foot comes into action when left forward movements of the body are required. An opposing force in the other foot will restore the equilibrium. Avoid all tension to the spine since tension from this area spreads like fire to every part of the body. The weight of the right arm is a point of contact in itself. Do not apply any downwards pressure. The right arm will work like a pendulum whose vertex is the elbow. Sit with the guitar and check to see where you get the most comfort and fluidity of playing and the less muscular tension.

Sitting correctly is probably as deep as I will get into technical jargon. Next we will learn Cavatina. I will finger it and explain the whys behind my decisions. The video will help you and me feel closer than we really are and definitely illustrate every concept as clearly as possible.

In Depth View of the Right Hand

Below is an animation of what your Right Hand should look like 95% of your playing time. In the animation I am playing an arpeggio formula: a-m-i-m. Notice how the movement comes from the main knuckle and how there is very little jumping or side-to-side movement coming from the hand.

Right Hand Arpeggio Animation

Below I show what is the Right Hand movement that your audience sees when they are looking at your play from the front. The fingers close inward in a fist like motion and typically people are struck by the fact that "so much music can be produced with so little movement"... The fact is that the proficient guitar player uses just the right amount of energy and wastes very little of it and every move is optimized to the maximum.

Right Hand movement from the front

The right hand creates a unit with the left hand. 99.9% of our playing mistakes originate in the right hand. Therefore, not giving both hands an even share of attention will definitely create havoc. Guitar is about syncronicity. As we acquire more security with the instrument, we tend to forget the right hand. We take for granted that it will work properly whether we keep a certain degree of control over it or not. This does not mean that we have to look at the right hand (only look at the right hand in a mirror until you have acquired the right position). What this means is that we have to finger the right hand as thoroughly as the left hand and stick to the fingering in the memorization process. Doing otherwise is mistakes in concerts 100%.

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